Dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection USP is a sterile, clear, colorless solution, free from visible particles and a water-soluble inorganic ester of dexamethasone which produces a rapid response even when injected intramuscularly.
It occurs as a white to practically white powder, is exceedingly hygroscopic, is soluble in water and its solutions have a pH between 7.0 and 8.5. It has the following structural formula:
Each mL of dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection USP, 4 mg/mL, contains 4.37 mg of dexamethasone sodium phosphate, USP equivalent to 4 mg dexamethasone phosphate; 1 mg sodium sulfite; 10 mg benzyl alcohol (preservative). Made isotonic with sodium citrate. pH adjusted with citric acid or sodium hydroxide.
ACTIONS — Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. Their synthetic analogs are primarily used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.
Glucocorticoids cause profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, they modify the body’s immune responses to diverse stimuli.